ATP Cofactors ®

A specially formulated high potency vitamins B-2/B-3 combination, containing 100 mg of Riboflavin and 500 mg of Niacin (as inositol hexanicotinate) per tablet.

ATP Cofactors is intended to be used as part of a complete nutritional program, emphasizing magnesium instead of calcium.

SUGGESTED USE: One to three tablets of ATP Cofactors daily, or as recommended by a healthcare provider. When used in conjunction with Iodoral® 50 mg tablets, the recommended amount is one tablet of ATP Cofactor for each 50 mg tablet of Iodoral®.

WARNING: The urine may turn dark yellow due to the excretion of riboflavin and may stain undergarment in subjects with urinary incontinence. The flushing associated with niacin does not occur because the formula uses a non flushing form of niacin.

ATP Cofactor is supplied in bottles of 90 tablets, a one month supply at 3 tablets/day.

Background Information

The unit of energy available from food is called calories. The metabolism of the macronutrients carbohydrates, fats, and proteins supply these calories. However, the body can not use these calories as a source of energy to perform life sustaining functions unless these calories are converted to a substance called ATP, which is the energy currency used by the body.

About one-half of the calories obtained from food are used to maintain body temperature and body water in a state essential for normal enzymatic activities and cell membrane fluidity. Therefore, 50% of the calories ingested are converted to ATP and the other half is used to pay a form to taxation in order to keep body temperature in the ideal range.

In order to convert food to ATP and use ATP as a source of energy, several micronutrients are required: vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. There is a close interaction and synergism between these micronutrients. For example, the B-complex vitamins, thiamine, niacin, riboflavin and pyridoxine cannot function well without being activated by phosphorylation. This phosphorylation is magnesium dependant. Therefore, adequate magnesium is required to optimize the performance of the B-complex vitamins.*

The synthesis of ATP by intact respiring mitochondria requires the presence of oxygen, magnesium, ADP, inorganic phosphate, and the substrates from the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids.* The generation of these substrates depends on the presence of adequate amount of vitamins, minerals and trace elements.* When all substances are presenting optimal concentrations, the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane and the capacity of the enzymatic system in the respiratory chain become rate limiting.*(1)

Rationale for the use of ATP Cofactors

As previously discussed, ATP is the universal currency of energy used in biological systems to maintain an organism in a state that is far from thermodynamic equilibrium with the environment, that is far from death. The active from of ATP is a complex of ATP with mainly magnesium, but also with manganese.* In case of manganese deficiency, magnesium can replace manganese.* The turnover of ATP is extremely high. For example, a human at rest consumes one half of his/her weight of ATP daily.

The synthesis of ATP from ADP plus high energy phosphate group is called oxidative phosphorylation and is dependant on the electron flow through the electron transport chain via electron carriers.(2) NADH and FADH2 are the major electron carriers in the synthesis of ATP. The B vitamins, niacin and riboflavin, are the precursors of the Cofactors NADH and FADH2.* These Cofactors play an important role also in the oxidation and organification of iodide by generating hydrogen peroxide via the NADPH oxydase system.*(3,4) In some conditions, the body cannot efficiently synthesized NADH and FADH3 from Niacin and Riboflavin because of defect/damage to the enzymes involved in this conversion.*(5-8) More Riboflavin and Niacin are needed to override the inefficient enzymes in order to obtain adequate levels of cofactors.* There is evidence that a lack of these vitamins can lead to a deficient organification of iodide.*(3) Preliminary results suggest that high dosage of vitamins B-2 and B-3 combined with 100-150 mg of elemental iodine in the form of Lugol tablets can help support overall well being.*(3,4)

ATP Cofactors should be used as part of a complete nutritional program emphasizing magnesium instead of calcium for best results.*(9-12) We recommend the following multivitamin-mineral combinations:

  • For pre-menopausal women: Optivite PMT®
  • For post menopausal women: Gynovite Plus®
  • For men: Androvite®
  • Extra magnesium may be ingested using the magnesium supplement Mag 200®
  1. Abraham GE, Flechas JD. Journal of Nutritional Medicine, 3:49-59, 1992
  2. Biochemistry, 2nd edition. Stryer and Lubert (ed.) Freeman, New York, 1975; 240-246.
  3. Abraham GE, Flechas JD. The Original Internist, 14:77-82, 2007.
  4. Figueiredo MD1, Cardoso LC, Ferreira AC, Campos DV, da Cruz Domingos M, Corbo R, Nasciutti LE, Vaisman M, arvalho DP. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Oct;86(10):4843-8. PMID: 11600551
  5. Niepomniszcze H, Targovnik HM, Gluzman BE, Curutchet P. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987 Aug;65(2):344-8. PMID: 3597712
  6. Moreno JC, Bikker H, Kempers MJ, van Trotsenburg AS, Baas F, de Vijlder JJ, Vulsma T, Ris-Stalpers C. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 11;347(2):95-102. PMID:  12110737
  7. Kusakabe T. Metabolism. 1975 Oct;24(10):1103-13. PMID: 1165726.
  8. Goei GS, Abraham GE. J Reprod Med. 1983 Aug;28(8):527-31. PMID: 6685186.
  9. Chakmakjian ZH, Higgins CE, Abraham GE. J Appl Nut. 37:12, 1985.
  10. Abraham GE, Rumley RE. J Reprod Med. 1987 Jun;32(6):405-22. PMID: 2956416
  11. Abraham GE, Grewal H. J Reprod Med. 1990 May;35(5):503-7. PMID: 2352244
  12. Abraham GE. J Nut Med. 2:165-178, 1991
*This statement has not been evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

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